Wetlands and Waterways

Wetlands are aquatic and semi-aquatic environments such as forested swamps, marshes, and bogs. Wetlands need not have standing water to be regulated under state and federal laws. Wetlands, streams, rivers, ponds and lakes are all regulated under various laws.


Impacts to these resources may occur during transportation projects when (for example) widening a roadway, replacing a culvert, or repairing a bridge. The following regulatory programs may be involved when wetlands, waterbodies, and waterways are affected.

Vermont Wetland Permit – Impacts to wetlands or upland buffers of certain wetlands

Vermont Shoreland Encroachment Permit – Impacts in or over lakes and ponds

Vermont Stream Alteration Permit – Impacts to perennial streams

Vermont Dam Order (Permit) – For construction, alteration or removal of dams


US Section 404 Army Corps of Engineers Permit – Impacts to wetlands, lakes, rivers, streams

US Section 401 Water Quality Certification – Discharges to “Waters of the United States”

US Section 9 Coast Guard Bridge Permit – Bridges over navigable waters

US Section 10 Army Corps Bridge Permit – Work in navigable waters

US Wild and Scenic Rivers Act – Work in federally designated “Wild and Scenic Rivers”

Executive Order 11988 – Floodplain Management – Federally funded work in floodplains

Executive Order 11990 – Protection of Wetlands – Federally funded work in wetlands