Estimating Quantities

General

Refer to the appropriate section in the VAOT Standard Specifications for Construction for descriptions of pay items, methods of measurement, and basis of payments. The Supplemental Specifications, General Special Provisions, Special Provisions or a note on the plans may modify these items. When necessary, describe all modifications in the Special Provisions for the particular project.

Placing Quantities on the Quantity Sheets

Quantities should be broken down and listed on the Quantity Sheet as follows:

  • Superstructure
  • Abutments
  • Approach slabs
  • Piers
  • Channel
  • Roadway
  • Utilities [participating and non-participating] Waterline, Sewer line, Street Lighting, Gas line
  • Erosion Control
  • Other categories, as appropriate

Rules for Rounding

Calculations

Quantities should be calculated to a level of accuracy commensurate with the cost of the item: the more expensive the item, the greater the level of accuracy.

Quantities

Actual calculated quantities should be entered into the Quantity Sheets, with any rounding being accomplished after the quantities are totaled. Guidelines for rounding the total quantities are shown for each bid item in Rounding Guidance. Rounding must not exceed one percent of the calculated quantity.

Procedures

The method for estimating bid quantities varies depending on the item. The estimating procedures for all bid items listed in the VAOT Standard Specifications are detailed below. Also refer to the definitions and Methods of Measurement sections in the Standard Specifications. Items not listed require special provisions or supplemental specifications.

Earthwork

201.10 – Clearing and Grubbing
201.11 – Clearing and Grubbing

Clearing and Grubbing is normally paid as a lump sum item. The area to be cleared and grubbed is computed in hectares from the plans. In areas with steep slopes, the designer may elect to measure along the slope rather than using a flat plan dimension. When clearing and grubbing is paid by lump sum, the number of hectares is shown only in the design folder and on the cost estimates. The amount of Clearing and Grubbing to be shown on the project plans (Quantity Sheet) is 1 LS.

When clearing and grubbing is paid by area, the estimated quantities in hectares are shown on the Quantity Sheet.

When using the item Clearing and Grubbing on small projects, add the statement in parentheses “Including Individual Trees and Stumps.” This statement will cover any individual trees that the designer has noted for being removed. This eliminates the use of the item Removing Small or Large Trees. On the plan sheet circle the trees that are to be removed and use a legend that indicates the circle denotes removal of trees.

201.15 – Removing Medium Trees
201.16 – Removing Large Trees
201.20 – Removing Medium Stumps
201.21 – Removing Large Stumps

The quantity for each bid item to be shown on project plans is the actual number of trees and stumps noted for removal on project layouts and cross sections. No rounding of the total quantity is necessary.

201.30 – Thinning and Trimming

The quantity of Thinning and Trimming is the estimated number of hectares to be thinned and trimmed.

202.10 – Demolition and Disposal of Buildings (each)

The Demolition and Disposal of Buildings to be shown on the project plans is the actual number of buildings to be removed.

203.15 – Common Excavation

The total quantity of Common Excavation in cubic meters, computed from the cross sections, includes Earthworks Sheet totals for mainline and all sidelines, drives and approaches, cut-to-fill transitions, and removal of existing bituminous pavement within 600 mm of the subgrade. Do not include excavation for estimated Borrow items. (See note.)

203.16 – Solid Rock Excavation

The total quantity of Solid Rock Excavation in cubic meters, computed from the cross sections, includes Earthworks Sheet totals for mainline, and all sidelines, drives and approaches, an estimated amount for overbreakage, and removal of existing Portland cement concrete within 600 mm of the subgrade. Overbreakage is estimated as the volume of material between the designed face of ledge and a parallel plane 300 mm behind that face. In an area where there are known to be a significant number of boulders above the ground, an estimated quantity should be included as “Nondeductible Boulders.”

203.17 – Unclassified Excavation

Unclassified Excavation consists of Common Excavation and Solid Rock Excavation when these items are not measured separately. The total quantity in cubic meters, computed from the cross sections, includes Earthworks Sheet totals for mainline and all sidelines, drives and approaches, cut-to-fill transitions, and removal of existing bituminous pavement within 600 mm of the subgrade.

203.20 – Muck Excavation

The total quantity of Muck Excavation includes Earthworks Sheet totals in cubic meters for all areas requiring removal and disposal of materials below the original ground line and which is not suitable for foundation material. The location and depth as determined by VAOT and as shown on Standard Sheet B-5M should be shown on the plans, typical section, and cross sections. The volume should be computed from the cross sections and refilled with material meeting requirements as outlined in the Special Provisions.

203.25 – Channel Excavation of Earth
203.26 – Channel Excavation of Rock
203.27 – Unclassified Channel Excavation

Channel Excavation in cubic meters is used for widening, deepening, and straightening existing channels and waterways and constructing new channels. The differences between the items are similar to those between Items 203.15, 203.16, and 203.17. The total quantity of each item is summarized on the Earthworks Sheet.

203.28 – Excavation of Surfaces and Pavements

The volume of Excavation of Surfaces and Pavements in cubic meters includes only the existing surfaces and pavements that are outside the limits of other excavation and embankment items as noted on the Plan Sheet by a note or symbol. Use the actual thickness of the pavement – usually 13 to 25 mm – in computing the volume.


Note: Earthwork Formula – When there are both earth and rock excavation on a project, use the earthwork formula on Figure 2 to determine the amount of cut material to waste or the amount of fill where borrow must be imported.



Note: Borrow – Earth, Sand, Granular, or Rock – is used to construct embankments when the material must come from a source off the project.


203.30 – Earth Borrow

The quantity of Earth Borrow in cubic meters is estimated from the cross sections. An appropriate fill factor should be selected for the material to be used to allow for shrinkage from compaction. The total quantity is summarized on the Earthworks Sheet.

203.31 – Sand Borrow

Sand Borrow is used to obtain the required frost depth protection. The quantity should be estimated in cubic meters from the cross sections. In ledge cut areas, the full depth of Sand Borrow should not be carried through the cut. Instead, allow for 75 mm for shimming purposes.

203.32 – Granular Borrow

Granular Borrow (in cubic meters) may be used:

  • At all bridge approaches that occur in embankment areas, as shown in Figure 3.
  • At culvert locations for 1200 mm and larger pipes as shown in Standard Sheet D-4M, except on projects with limited funds where it may be omitted.
  • As the first layer of fill for an embankment to be constructed across open water or across swampy, wet ground.
  • To replace solid rock excavated below subgrade, not to exceed 75 mm.
  • On projects where A-6 and/or A-7 soils predominate, an additional quantity should be estimated for mixing with excavated material to be placed in embankments.
  • For refilling Muck Excavation areas.

If the project requirements for Granular Borrow results in a waste earthwork, the quantity at bridge approaches may be reduced to the minimum shown in Figure 2. Excavated Solid Rock Excavation may be used to complete the normal requirement for Granular Borrow.

The total quantity of Granular Borrow is summarized in cubic meters on the Earthworks Summary Sheet. Quantities shown should include a factor of 1.15 to allow for shrinkage.

203.33 – Rock Borrow

Rock Borrow (in cubic meters) may be specified to improve foundations or to provide slope stability. The total quantity is summarized on the Earthworks Summary Sheet. When Rock Borrow is obtained from previously blasted or stockpiled sources, the quantity is the volume of blasted material divided by a factor of 1.35.

203.35 – Gravel Backfill for Slope Stabilization

A blanket of this material (measured in cubic meters) 300 to 600 mm thick is used on cut slopes through saturated A-4 and all A-6 and A-7 soils. Solid Rock Excavation may be substituted for this item when available. See Standard Sheet B-11M.

203.40 – Fine Grading–Subgrade

Normally, Fine Grading–Subgrade (measured in square meters) is used only on the mainline. Fine grading for sidelines and drives must be included in the quantity estimates if the designer wants these areas fine graded. The designer should state in a note on the plans where Fine Grading–Subgrade is to be used and where it is not. (Field drives are not to be fine graded.) Slope areas under and behind the curb in urban roadways is excluded.

204.20 – Trench Excavation of Earth
204.21 – Trench Excavation of Rock

Separate cubic meter quantity estimates must be calculated for each type of Trench Excavation. Quantity computations must reflect the Standard Specifications provisions for trench depths greater than 1.5 m. The total quantity for each item is summarized on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

Use the pay lines in Figure 4 for computing Trench Excavation for a slope pipe installation in an embankment. Refer to Standard Sheet D-2m for excavation for underdrain. When Trench Excavation occurs through an area of Drilling and Blasting of Solid Rock Subgrade, Trench Excavation of Rock should be paid and the quantity paid deducted from the Drilling and Blasting quantity.

Allow one cubic meter of Trench Excavation of Earth for each 100 square meters of Drilling and Blasting of Solid Rock Subgrade. The minimum allowance is one 750 mm wide by 1200 mm deep trench for the full width of subgrade on the typical section.

Include 50 m3 of Trench Excavation of Earth per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion control.

The use of trench excavation of earth will be a non-bid item on projects that do not carry it as a bid item.

204.25 – Structure Excavation

The quantity for Structure Excavation will be provided by Structures.

204.30 – Granular Backfill for Structures

Granular Backfill for Structures (measured in cubic meters) is used to backfill undercut areas at culvert locations. The quantities should be computed in accordance with the Standard Specifications. The quantities are summarized on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

204.40 – Cofferdam

The lump sum quantity for Cofferdam will be provided by Structures.

205.10 – Drilling and Blasting of Solid Rock

The quantity in meters is estimated considering the area covered by rock slopes with ratios between 1:1 and 5:1 that will be under new embankment, the average depth of drill hole, and the drill pattern. The estimated quantity is the product of the area in hectares times 4485 meters of drill hole per hectare, based on 1.5-m deep drill holes on a 1.8-m by 1.8-m pattern.

205.20 – Drilling and Blasting of Solid Rock–Subgrade

The quantity in square meters is estimated considering the area measured at subgrade. A quantity of Trench Excavation of Earth (Item 204.20) is to be estimated for test trenches needed to inspect the depth of shattered and rearranged rock below subgrade.

208.30 – Cofferdam Excavation, Earth
208.35 – Cofferdam Excavation, Rock

Calculated similar to Structure Excavation.

210.10 – Cold Planing–Bituminous Pavement

The quantity of Cold Planing is estimated in square meters from the area to be planed in accordance with the pavement design. The area should be shown on the plans by note or symbol.

212.20 – Scarifying Pavement

Existing Portland cement concrete pavement and bituminous concrete pavement that are between 0.6 to 3 m below subgrade will be broken up and left in place under this bid item. Layouts should show the scarifying limits. For example: Station 46+080 to 52+075, Scarifying Pavement (Portland Cement Concrete) or Station 20+035 to 26+080, Scarifying Pavement. (Existing pavement below 3 m will be left in place as is.)

Measure the area in square meters to determine the quantity. The quantity sheet should not differentiate between areas indicated elsewhere in the plans as Portland cement concrete and those not so indicated.

Subbase and Base Courses

Include 250 m3 of subbase material per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion.

301.15 – Subbase of Gravel

Quantities for Subbase of Gravel are calculated with the computer program at each stage of design using INROADS software. A copy of the Final Plan estimate is saved for comparison during and after construction.

Usually, this item is modified for percent of wear when used on the outer portion of a roadway subbase; the central portion may be Subbase of Dense Graded Crushed Stone or similar material.

301.15 – Subbase of Gravel (cubic meters)
301.25 – Subbase of Crushed Gravel (Coarse Graded) (cubic meters)
301.26 – Subbase of Crushed Gravel (Fine Graded) (cubic meters)
301.27 – Subbase of Crushed Gravel (Fine Graded) Truck Measurement (cubic meters)
301.28 – Subbase of Crushed Gravel (Fine Graded) (tons)
301.35 – Subbase of Dense Graded Crushed Stone (cubic meters)

Quantities for these items may be calculated with the computer program, with INROADS, or by hand on smaller projects. Prior to that, quantities should be roughly estimated for cost estimates. A copy of the Final Plan estimate is saved for comparison during and after construction.

303.25 – Plant Mixed Base Course (Not normally used)

The weight of Plant Mixed Base Course is estimated at 2.462 tons per cubic meter.

Plant Mixed Base Course (measured in tons) placed in one or two layers is shown and computed 600 mm wider than the bituminous concrete pavement. This will result in a step 300 mm wide on each side.

Surface Courses and Pavement

401.10 – Aggregate Surface Course
402.10 – Aggregate Shoulders, in Place

The quantity of these two items is determined by computing the in-place amount of material from the typical sections. The quantity is expressed in cubic meters.

Item 402.10 should not be used for resurfacing projects because the depths and widths vary too much for in-place measurements. Use Item 402.11 or 402.12 for resurfacing projects.

402.11 – Aggregate Shoulders, Truck Measurement

The quantity for Aggregate Shoulders, Truck Measurement, is determined the same way as for Aggregate Shoulders, in Place. Because of the potentially inaccurate measurements of truck bodies, this item should be used only for small quantities. Measurement is in cubic meters.

402.12 – Aggregate Shoulders

The quantity for Aggregate Shoulders is determined the same way as for Aggregate Shoulders, in Place and then converted to metric Tons.

404.16 – Bituminous Surface Treatment, Type I
404.21 – Bituminous Surface Treatment, Type II
404.31 – Bituminous Surface Treatment, Type III
404.40 – Bituminous Surface Treatment Type IV

These items have a varying number of applications. The application rates for these items are expressed as a range in the Standard Specifications. Use the combined heaviest application rate for each item for estimating quantities. The computed width is to be 150 mm less than the actual shoulder width. Treatment with this item is extended to the bituminous or timber curb face, if present. The unit for these items is kilograms.

404.45 – Tar Emulsion (liters)
404.46 – Tar Emulsion (kilograms)
404.55 – Cutback Asphalt (kilograms)

The application rates for these items are expressed as a range in the Standard Specifications. Use the combined heaviest application rate for each item for estimating quantities.

404.60 – Asphalt Cement

The quantity of Asphalt Cement is determined from the Bituminous Surface Treatment quantities and the percent of asphalt from the mix design. Multiply the BST quantity by the percent of asphalt.

404.65 – Emulsified Asphalt

Application rates for this item are between 0.11 liters per m2 and 0.18 liters per m2 (0.025 Gal/SY to 0.04 Gal/SY).
For estimating quantities for this item on Bridge projects:
English: 0.04 gal/yd2 * 8.31 lb/gal * 1 cwt/100 lb * Application Area
Metric: 0.18 L/m2 * 1 kg/L * Application Area

For Roadway and Paving projects use the application rate designated on the plans

Contract estimates for all projects shall include a quantity of tack coat for use between all courses of paving.

406.25 – Bituminous Concrete Pavement (tons)
406.27 – Medium Duty Bituminous Concrete Pavement (tons)
409.25 – Open Graded Friction Course (tons)

Estimate the quantities based on the widths and thicknesses of surfacing and shoulders shown in the typical sections and lengths of roadway to be paved. Use the mass of materials established by Materials. <structures manual specifies 2.4 tons per cubic meter>

406.50 – Price Adjustment Asphalt Cement

This item is included on all projects with 2000 or more tons of mix.

417.10 – Bituminous Crack Filling

The quantity of Bituminous Crack Filling in kilograms is based on the length and width of the cracks to be filled. A visit to the project site is usually required to evaluate conditions and estimate the quantity.

Structures Items

501.21 to 501.60 – Various Classes of Concrete (cubic meters)

Make the following items incidental to the adjacent concrete item:

524.20 to 524.21 - Joint Sealer, Polyurethane

530.25 – Epoxy Bonding Compound

Expansion joint materials [cork, closed cell foam, etc.]

P.V.C. water stop

505.15 to 505.26 – Various Sizes of Steel Piling (meters)

Calculate pile lengths in increments of 1.5 meters.

505.35 – Permanent Steel Sheet Piling (square meters)
505.36 – Temporary Steel Sheet Piling (square meters)
506.50 – Structural Steel (Rolled Beam)
506.55 – Structural Steel (Plate Girder)

When estimating quantities of steel, the designer should use 7850 kg/m3. Consider all welding as incidental to the cost of fabrication. In addition, make no provisions for payment of the weight (mass) of weld metal used. The weight (mass) of shop and field bolts, nuts and washers shall be incidental to the structural steel item. Make payment based on the extended weights (masses) submitted by the Fabricator.

507.15 – Reinforcing Steel
507.17 – Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel
507.18 – Galvanized Reinforcing Steel
509.20 – Steel Grid Flooring
514.10 – Water Repellent

Use an application rate of 0.3 liters per square meter, for estimating this item.

525.40 to 525.44 – Various Types of Bridge Railing

Incidental Construction

When estimating quantities for manufactured items, the designer should consider what is normally available. Quantities should be in normal increments readily available to reduce costs.

601.0000 to 601.2799 – Various Types and Sizes of Pipes (meters)
601.3000 to 601.4599 – Various Types and Sizes of Pipe Arches (meters)

Each culvert should be designed so it can be installed from available standard commercial lengths – usually 0.610-m increments. The length of each size and type is shown by location on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet. The total quantity for each item is summarized on the Quantity Sheet. Elbows, end sections, and reducers are not included in the length of pipes.

601.5000 to 601.5999 – Various Types and Sizes of Pipe Elbows (each)

The quantity for each item is the number of elbows included in the design and listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

601.6000 to 601.8399 – Various Types and Sizes of Pipe End Sections (each)

The quantity for each item is the number of end sections included in the drainage plans as listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

601.98 – Concentric Reducer Section (each)

The quantity is the number of reducer sections included in the drainage plans and listed on the Drainage Sheet.

601.99 – Re-laying Pipe Culverts

The quantity for this item is the total length in meters of all pipe culverts to be relaid. The lengths and locations are listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

601.995 – Cleaning Culvert Pipe, In-Place (0-600 mm, Incl.)
601.996 – Cleaning Culvert Pipe, In-Place (Greater than 600 mm)

The quantity of Cleaning Culvert Pipe is the estimated length in meters of each size to be cleaned.

602.15 – Cement Rubble Masonry
602.20 – Dry Rubble Masonry

Rubble masonry is used for pipe headwalls, pipe cradles and the like. The quantity is estimated in cubic meters for each installation and summarized on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

602.25 – Stone Masonry Facing

The quantity of Stone Masonry Facing is the area in square meters where the facing is to be applied. Compute the area of each installation and summarize the quantities on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet. The area is the height of the front face and width of the capstone times the length.

602.30 – Repointing Masonry

The quantity of Repointing Masonry is the area in square meters to be repointed. Compute the area for each installation and summarize the quantities on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet.

604.10 to 604.56 – Various Grates, Covers, Manholes, Precast Drop Inlets, Catch Basins (each)

The quantity of each item is listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet from the Cross Section Sheets. The Item Detail and Drainage Sheet summary provides the total quantity.

605.10 to 605.13 – Various Underdrains
605.20 to 605.23 – Various Underdrain Carrier Pipes

The length of each item in meters is shown on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet by location. The Item Detail and Drainage Sheet summary provides the total quantity. Backfill below the elevation of two meters above the flowline is included in the cost of this item. Granular Backfill for Structures or Sand Borrow is to be computed for volumes above two meters over the flowline.

605.90 – Underdrain Riser

Each underdrain riser is listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet by location. The Item Detail and Drainage Sheet summary provides the total quantity.

605.95 – Underdrain Flushing Basin

Each underdrain flushing basin is listed on the Item Detail and Drainage Sheet by location. The Item Detail and Drainage Sheet summary provides the total quantity. Backfill requirements are the same as for Items 605.10 through 605.13.

607.10 – Roadway Patrol Maintenance

Roadway Patrol Maintenance is used to reimburse the contractor for maintenance of detours or sections of roadway open to traffic within the construction area. Estimate the number of hours considering the length of time detours will be needed, the percentage of the project where traffic must be carried through construction, and the completion time for the project.


Note: Equipment rental items 608.10 through 608.41 are not normally bid items and are used with a quantity of one hour.


608.10 – Bulldozer Rental, Type I
608.11 – Bulldozer Rental, Type II
608.15 – Power Grader Rental
608.20 – Dragline Rental, Type I
608.21 – Dragline Rental, Type II
608.25 – All Purpose Excavator Rental, Type I
608.26 – All Purpose Excavator Rental, Type II
608.37 – Truck Rental
608.40 – Loader Rental, Type I
608.41 – Loader Rental, Type II

When any of these items are needed, estimate the number of hours for each type of equipment.

Include 6 hours per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion control.

608.30 – Power Broom Rental (hours)

For paving projects, estimate five hours per km for Power Broom Rental.

609.10 – Dust Control with Water

Where traffic is to be maintained, estimate 1660 m3 per km of two-lane roadway. The pay unit is cubic meters.

609.15 – Dust and Ice Control with Calcium Chloride

Estimate 2.8 metric tons per km of two-lane roadway, where traffic is to be maintained. The pay unit is tons.

613.10 – Stone Fill, Type I
613.11 – Stone Fill, Type II
613.12 – Stone Fill, Type III
613.13 – Stone Fill, Type IV
613.15 – Riprap, Heavy Type
613.16 – Riprap, Light Type

The quantities of Stone Fill or Riprap are computed in cubic meters based on the planned thickness and the area to be covered. Refer to Standard Sheet D-3M for minimum depths and widths of Stone Fill. Excavation required for placing these items is paid for as the same type removed above the face of protective material.

Include 30 m3 of Stone Fill, Type I per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion control.

613.20 – Slope Paving

The quantity of Slope Paving is computed in square meters based on the area to be covered. Excavation required for placing this item is paid for as the same type removed above the face of protective material.

616.20 – Granite Slope Edging
616.21 – Vertical Granite Edging
616.22 – Granite Bridge Curb
616.23 – Granite Bridge Curb (Median Slope Edge)
616.25 – Precast Reinforced Concrete Curb, Type A
616.26 – Precast Reinforced Concrete Curb, Type B
616.27 – Cast-in-Place Concrete Curb, Type A
616.28 – Cast-in-Place Concrete Curb, Type B

The quantity of each type of slope edging or curb is the total length in meters, including radii, of each item as determined from the Layout Sheets.

616.31 – Bituminous Concrete Curb, Type B

The quantity in tons of Bituminous Concrete Curb, Type B, is the total length of each item as determined from the Layout Sheets and converted to metric tons using 0.018 tons/meter.

616.35 – Treated Timber Curb

The quantity of Treated Timber Curb is the total length in meters determined from the Layout Sheets.

616.40 – Removing and Resetting Curb
616.41 – Removal of Existing Curb

The quantity of each item is the total length in meters of the item as determined from the Layout Sheets.

616.45 – Portland Cement Concrete Gutter

The volume of this item is computed in cubic meters from the depth, width and length of each installation. Refer to Standard Sheet D-3M for minimum depths and widths. Bed course material and excavation are to be computed under separate items.

616.47 – Bituminous Concrete Gutters and Traffic Islands

The volume of this item is computed in tons from the depth, width and length of each installation. Refer to Standard Sheet D-3M for minimum depths and widths. The volume is converted to metric tons using 2.462 tons/cubic meter. Bed course material and excavation are to be computed under separate items.

618.10 – Portland Cement Concrete Sidewalk, 125 mm
618.11 – Portland Cement Concrete Sidewalk, 200 mm

The area of each type of Portland Cement Concrete Sidewalk is computed in square meters from the width and length of the planned sidewalks. Refer to Standard Sheet C-2AM for typical widths. Bed course material and excavation are to be computed under separate items.

618.15 – Bituminous Concrete Sidewalk

The volume of Bituminous Concrete Sidewalk is computed from the depth, width and length of each installation. The volume is converted to metric tons using 2.462 tons/cubic meter. Bed course material and excavation are to be computed under separate items.

619.10 – Boundary Markers (each)

The quantity of Boundary Markers is the number required for the project.

619.15 – Wood Marker Posts
619.16 – Steel Marker Posts
619.17 – Yielding Marker Posts

The unit for each of these items is each. Yielding marker posts are preferred. Marker posts are specified to mark the locations of:

  • Drop inlets, except curb drop inlets and drop inlets in lawns
  • Inlets and outlets of culverts 750 mm or less in diameter, except in stone fill
  • Underdrain outlets and flushing basins
  • Extension service boxes for water lines (see Standard Sheet D-4M)

Where two drainage facility outlets are within 3 m of each other, a single marker post is designed to indicate the location of both.

In addition to marker posts designed in accordance with the above policy, marker posts are estimated as follows, where necessary:

  • One marker post for each estimated flushing basin
  • One marker post for each 15 m of estimated underdrain carrier pipe
  • One marker post for each estimated extension service box
619.20 – Removing and Resetting Property Markers (each)

The quantity of Removing and Resetting Property Markers is the number of markers that must be reset on the project.

620.11 – Chain-Link Fence, 1.2 m
620.12 – Chain-Link Fence, 1.8 m
620.13 – Chain-Link Fence, 2.4 m
620.25 – Woven Wire Fence with Steel Posts
620.26 – Woven Wire Fence with Wood Posts

The quantity of fence is determined from the lengths in meters on the Layout Sheets.

620.15 – Gate for Chain-Link Fence, 1.2 m
620.16 – Gate for Chain-Link Fence, 1.8 m
620.17 – Gate for Chain-Link Fence, 2.4 m
620.30 – Drive Gate for Woven Wire Fence

The number of gates for each type of fence is determined from the Layout Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

620.20 – Bracing Assembly for Chain-Link Fence, 1.2 m
620.21 – Bracing Assembly for Chain-Link Fence, 1.8 m
620.22 – Bracing Assembly for Chain-Link Fence, 2.4 m
620.40 – Steel Brace for Woven Wire Fence
620.41 – Wood Brace for Woven Wire Fence

The number of braces of each type for intermediate and corner locations is determined in accordance with Standard Sheets F-1M through F-6M. The unit for each of these items is each.

620.50 – Removing and Resetting Fence
620.55 – Removal of Existing Fence

The quantity of removing and/or resetting fence is the length of fence in meters that must be removed and/or reset on the project.

620.70 – Snow Fence
620.75 – Snow Barrier (Galvanized)

The quantity of Snow Barrier is the length in meters of barrier needed for the project.


Note: All guardrail items – Items 621.15 through 621.90 – are listed on the Guardrail or Other Details Sheet by type and location.


621.15 to 621.30 – Various Types of Guardrail

Use the design plan quantity in meters for guardrail items. Beam rail quantities should be in 3.8 m lengths.

621.35 to 621.45 – Various Types of Barriers

Use the design plan quantity in meters for barriers. Quantities should be in standard lengths available from manufacturers.

621.50 to 621.66 – Various Terminals and Anchors

The quantity of each type of terminal or anchor is the number of each item required on the project.

621.70 – Guardrail Approach Section, Type I
621.71 – Guardrail Approach Section, Type II

The quantity of approach sections is the number of each type required.

621.74 – Aluminum Approach Railing

The quantity of Aluminum Approach Railing is the length in meters of railing required for the project.

621.75 – Removing and Resetting Guardrail
621.80 – Removal and Disposal of Guardrail

The quantity of Removing and Resetting Guardrail or Removal and Disposal of Guardrail is the length of rail in meters to be removed and reset or removed and disposed of on the project.

621.81 – Removal and Disposal of Guide Posts (each)

The quantity of Removing and Disposal of Guide Posts is the number of posts to be removed and disposed of on the project.

621.85 – Guide Posts (each)

The quantity of Guide Posts is the number of posts required on the project.

621.90 – Temporary Traffic Barrier

The quantity of Temporary Traffic Barrier is the length of barrier in meters needed for the traffic control plan.

622.10 – Insulation Board

Insulation board is used to prevent frost heaves. The quantity is the volume of insulation board in cubic meters included in the plans. The designer should also include a quantity of Sand Borrow (Item 203.31) when insulation board is used, computed using a minimum depth of 75 mm.

625.10 – Sleeves for Utilities

Sleeves for Utilities are detailed on the Plans. The quantity of Sleeves for Utilities is the length of sleeve from the Layout Sheets.

626.15 – Driven or Drilled Well

For Driven or Drilled Wells, the quantity is the estimated depth in meters where a sufficient flow of water is anticipated, plus five meters to develop a sump.

626.20 – Well Casing Pipe

The quantity of Well Casing Pipe is normally the full depth of the well in meters, whether developed under Item 626.15 or 626.25.

626.25 – Development of Well in Gravel Formation

This item is used when it is anticipated that the well will be developed in a water-bearing stratum of porous material. The quantity for the item is the estimated number of hours required to develop the well.

626.30 – Pump Test for Yield

Normally, one Pump Test for Yield is required for each well. The quantity is the estimated number of hours required to conduct the test.

627.20 – Double Pipe Jet Pump System
627.25 – Submersible Pump System
627.30 – Shallow Well Pump System

One of these three systems is selected for each well on a lump-sum basis.

628.20 – ABS Sewer Pipe Solid Wall
628.21 – ABS Sewer Pipe Composite
628.22 – Reinforced Concrete Sewer Pipe
628.25 – Cast Iron Soil Pipe, Extra Heavy
628.26 – Cast Iron Soil Pipe, Cement-Lined
628.27 – Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength
628.28 – Ductile Iron Pipe, Cement-Lined
628.30 – Relaying Sewer Pipe
628.35 – PVC Sewer Pipe

The quantity in meters of each of these items is detailed in the plans for any sanitary sewer system included on the project.

628.42 – Transfer to New System-Sanitary Sewer

This lump-sum item is required for each sanitary sewer system on each project.

629.20 – Adjust Elevation of Valve Box (each)
629.23 – Seamless Copper Water Tube (meters)
629.24 – Ductile Iron Pipe, Cement-Lined (meters)
629.25 – Extension Service Box and Curb Stop (each)
629.26 – Gate Valve (each)
629.27 – Gate Valve with Valve Box (each)
629.28 – Hydrant (each)
629.29 – Relocate Hydrant (each)
629.30 – Remove Hydrant (each)
629.31 – Meter Pit (each)
629.32 – Plastic Water Pipe, Flexible (meters)
629.33 – Plastic Water Pipe, Rigid (meters)
629.34 – Steel Water Pipe, Galvanized (meters)
629.35 – Tapping Sleeve & Valve with Valve Box (each)
629.36 – Valve Pit (each)
629.39 – Corporation Stop (each)
629.40 – Expansion Assembly (each)
629.42 – Transfer to New System-Water System (lump sum)
629.44 – Pipe Insulation (meters)
629.54 – Crushed Stone Bedding (tons)

The quantities of each of these items are detailed in the plans for any water system included on the project.

630.10 – Uniformed Traffic Officers (hours)

For paving operations, estimate one hour for each 11 tons of bituminous mix.

Projects where traffic will be diverted to other facilities during construction may require Uniformed Traffic Officers. Consult the Construction Engineer at Final Design on the need for the item and the estimated quantity required.

Additional hours should be considered for safety projects where there is a potential for several work zones along the project. Additional hours should also be considered for projects in urban areas.

630.15 – Flaggers (hours)

Estimate one hour of Flagger for each 30 m3 of excavation and borrow on the project.

Estimate one hour of Flagger for each 23 m3 of Subbase.

Estimate one hour of Flagger for each 11 tons of bituminous mix.

Add the Flagger hours for excavation and borrow, subbase, and bituminous mix and estimate the total cost.

631.10 – Field Office–Engineers
631.11 – Field Office–Soils and Materials
631.12 – Combined Engineers and Soils Office

When a Field Office is required for a project, a Field Office Request Form must be completed. See Figure 5. The unit for each item is lump sum.

631.16 – Testing Equipment–Concrete
631.17 – Testing Equipment–Bituminous

When Item 631.11 is required for testing concrete or bituminous material, the appropriate testing equipment item is included as a lump-sum bid item.

631.25 – Field Office Telephone

Field Office Telephone is not a bid item. It is set up to provide funds for reimbursing the contractor for the monthly telephone service charges. The lump unit amount is based on the number of months of anticipated use and the estimated monthly charges.

634.10 – Employee Traineeship

Employee Traineeships are set up on selected projects to provide training for entry-level construction employees. On these projects, the quantity for this item is the estimated number of hours of training. The designer must also include the current unit price for Employee Traineeship. This information must be obtained from the VAOT Civil Rights Office.

635.10 – Mobilization

This lump sum item should be included on all projects.

When this item is used in a contract consisting of more than one project, the Grand Composite estimate should indicate a quantity of 1 LS. Fractional breakout of the pay item (that is, 0.7 LS for one project, 0.3 LS for the other) among the individual projects is at the discretion of the designer. A breakout finer than tenths is not justifiable.

Estimate the cost of Mobilization as 7 percent of the total cost of all other contract items. If Clearing and Grubbing is less than one hectare, it is included in Mobilization.

641.10 – Traffic Control

Traffic control is generally estimated as 10 percent of the total project costs for other items, excluding Mobilization.

646.20 to 646.25 – Various Paint Pavement Markings
646.26 – 600 mm Stop Bars
646.30 – Letter or Symbol (each)
646.31 – Crosswalk Marking with Diagonal Markings
646.32 – Railroad Crossing Symbol (each)
646.40 to 646.45 – Various Durable Pavement Markings
646.46 – Durable 600 mm Stop Bars
646.50 – Durable Letter or Symbol (each)
646.51 – Durable Crosswalk Marking with Diagonal Line
646.52 – Durable Railroad Crossing Symbol (each)
646.60 to 646.65 – Various Temporary Pavement Markings
646.66 – Temporary 600 mm Stop Bars
646.70 – Temporary Letter or Symbol (each)
646.71 – Temporary Crosswalk Marking with Diagonal Line
646.72 – Temporary Railroad Crossing Symbol (each)
646.75 – Raised Pavement Markers, Type II
646.80 – Raised Pavement Markers, Type I
646.76 – Line Striping Targets (each)
646.81 – Painted Curb
646.82 – Painted Island
646.85 – Removal of Existing Pavement Markings

The quantity for each Item is determined from the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Markings Sheets.

649.11 to 649.61 – Various Geotextiles

The area of each type of geotextile is determined in square meters from the plans showing the details of the installation. For estimating, a multiplier of 1.5 times the plan quantity should be applied to allow for normal deterioration replacement.

651.15 – Seed
651.16 – Wildflower Seed
651.17 – Seed–Winter Rye

The mass of each type of seed is determined in kilograms from the seeding formula and the area to be seeded.

Include 5 kg of Seed or Seed-Winter Rye per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion control.

651.18 – Fertilizer

Fertilizer is applied at the rate of 560 kg/ha unless the General Notes for the project state otherwise. The quantity of Fertilizer is determined in kilograms by applying that rate to the area to be seeded.

651.20 – Agricultural Limestone

Agricultural Limestone is applied at the rate of 4500 kg/ha unless the General Notes for the project state otherwise. The quantity of Agricultural Limestone is determined in tons by applying that rate to the area to be seeded.

651.25 – Hay Mulch

Hay Mulch is applied at the rate of 4500 kg/ha unless the General Notes for the project state otherwise. The quantity of Hay Mulch is determined in tons by applying that rate to the area to be seeded. For estimating, a multiplier of 1.5 times the plan quantity should be applied to allow for normal deterioration replacement.

651.26 – Hay Bales for Erosion Control (each)

The number of Hay Bales for Erosion Control is determined from the Erosion Control Plan Sheets.

651.30 – Sodding

The quantity of Sodding is the area in square meters to be sodded as noted on the Layout Sheets.

651.35 – Topsoil

Topsoil is provided to be spread from the shoulder to the toe of the subgrade or bottom of the sand borrow on fills. In cuts, it is spread from the shoulder to either the safety point or the clear zone limits. Topsoil may be placed in the median, if it is needed. Compute the topsoil quantity in cubic meters to the subgrade toe and estimate the quantity beyond that. If Topsoil is encountered within the project, it should be salvaged, and adjustments to the Earthwork quantity should be computed for the refill, if in fill, and a reduction in the cut available for embankment, if in cut.

Provide for 50 mm of topsoil for seeding areas included in Item 203.28 – Excavation of Surfaces and Pavements.

The estimated depth of topsoil is 50 mm in rural areas and 150 mm in urban areas.

Stockpiling of topsoil from sources within the construction limits is paid as Common Excavation.

Any topsoil to be stockpiled for use by a separate contract should be so noted in special provisions in both contracts.

651.40 – Grubbing Material

Grubbing Material containing plant roots is applied along streams on rock fill slopes to promote the growth of vegetation. The area where Grubbing Material is to be applied is determined from the Layout Sheets. The area is determined in square meters using slope measurements.

654.10 – Erosion Matting

The area where Erosion Matting is to be applied is determined in square meters from the Layout Sheets. The area is determined using slope measurements.

Include 100 m2 per kilometer of project length for temporary erosion control.

656.15 to 656.50 – Various Planting Items

The quantity for each item is the number of plants of that type shown on the Landscaping Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

675.20 – Traffic Signs (Type A)
675.21 – Traffic Signs (Type B)

The quantity for each type of Traffic Sign is the total area of signs in square meters as determined from the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

675.25 – Sheet Aluminum for Overlay

The quantity for Sheet Aluminum for Overlay is the total area of signs in square meters to be overlaid as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

675.301 – Flanged Channel Sign Posts (meter)
675.31 – W-Shape Steel Sign Posts (kilogram)
675.32 – Tubular Aluminum Sign Posts (kilogram)
675.33 – Tubular Steel Sign Posts (kilogram)
675.341 – Square Tube Steel (meter)

The quantity for each type of sign post is the mass in kilograms as determined from the total length of post as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets and the standard mass per meter for that type of post.

675.40 – Foundation for W-Shape Steel Posts, 450 mm Diameter
675.41 – Foundation for W-Shape Steel Posts, 600 mm Diameter
675.42 – Foundation for W-Shape Steel Posts, 750 mm Diameter
675.43 – Foundation for Tubular Steel Posts

The quantity for each type of foundation is the number of each type as shown on the Traffic Sign or Signal Sheets.

675.50 – Removing Signs (each)

The quantity for Removing Signs is the number of signs to be removed as shown on the Traffic Sign Sheet.

675.60 – Erecting Salvaged Signs (each)

The quantity for Erecting Salvaged Signs is the number of salvaged signs to be erected as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

675.61 – Setting Salvaged Posts (each)

The quantity for Setting Salvaged Posts is the number of salvaged posts to be erected as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

675.70 – Modifying Sign Posts (each)

The quantity for Modifying Sign Posts is the number of posts to be modified as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

676.10 – Delineators with Steel Posts
676.11 – Delineators with Salvaged Posts
676.12 – Removal of Existing Delineators
676.15 – Remove and Replace Reflector Units
676.20 – Delineators with Flexible Posts

The quantity for each of the above delineator items is the number of delineators or reflector units as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

677.12 – Overhead Traffic Sign Support, Cantilever
677.13 – Overhead Traffic Sign Support, Multi-Support
677.22 – Overhead Traffic Sign Support, Cantilever with Lighting
677.23 – Overhead Traffic Sign Support, Multi-Support with Lighting

The quantity for each type of Overhead Traffic Sign Support is the number of that type of support as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

677.25 – Remove and Reset Overhead Traffic Sign Support (each)

The quantity for Remove and Reset Overhead Traffic Sign Support is the number of supports to be removed and reset as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

678.15 – Traffic Control Signal System–Intersection

The unit basis for Traffic Control Signal System–Intersection is each designated intersection where this item is to be installed. The quantity is the number of intersections where Traffic Control Systems are to be installed as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

678.16 – Flashing Beacon–Ground Mounted
678.17 – Flashing Beacon–Aerial Mounted

The quantity for each type of Flashing Beacon is the number of that type of beacon as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

678.20 – Interconnecting Cable
678.21 – Electrical Conduit
678.22 – Vehicle Loop Detector
678.23 – Wired Conduit
678.24 – Electrical Wiring

The quantity for each of these items is the length in meters of cable, conduit or wiring for each item as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

678.25 – Pull Box–Standard
678.26 – Junction Box
678.27 – Pull Box–Double

The quantity for each type of box is the number of that type of box as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

678.30 – Electrical Conduit Sleeve

The quantity for Electrical Conduit Sleeve is the total length in meters of sleeve as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets.

678.40 – Temporary Traffic Signal System
678.41 – Temporary Flashing Beacon
678.42 – Temporary Detector

The quantity for each of these temporary items is the number of complete installations for each type as shown on the Traffic Signs, Signals, and Pavement Marking Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

679.16 – Direct Burial Cable for Street Lighting

The quantity for Direct Burial Cable for Street Lighting is the total length of cable in meters as shown on the Lighting Plan Sheets.

679.21 – Light Pole Base
679.22 – Extend Light Pole Base
679.23 – Breakaway Feature for Light Pole
679.25 – Removing and Resetting Light Pole
679.45 – Light Pole
679.47 – Bracket Arm

The quantity for each of these items is the number of that item as shown on the Lighting Plan Sheets. The unit for each of these items is each.

679.50 – Luminaire (each)

The quantity for Luminaires is the number of luminaires shown on the Lighting Plan Sheets.

Contingency Items

Normally, all quantities are listed in accordance with the Standard Specifications. Occasionally, there is a need for an item of work that is not listed. For a contingency item for which there is a reasonable basis for estimating the quantity, use that quantity and an appropriate unit price based on past bids. For a contingency item with no reasonable basis for estimating the quantity (as with equipment and rental items, for the most part), use a quantity of 1 and “NABI” (Not A Bid Item) designation on the quantity sheet and cost estimate. The unit price used in this case should be reflective of a small quantity; average unit prices may not apply. Rates listed in the current Rental Rate Blue Book published by the Equipment Guide Book Company may be used. (Finals in Construction has a copy.)

Miscellaneous Considerations

Ledge

Allow ledge over-breakage to the following limits:

  • Vertically – 150 mm average.
  • Horizontally – 300 mm average.

Include quantities for Structure Excavation and concrete in the estimate to the above indicated limits only when the item “cofferdam” is not used. When using the cofferdam item, the limits apply to concrete only.

Hydro-Demolisher

The use of hydro demolition may be considered for removal of concrete on all deck rehabilitation projects. The designer may request cores of the deck in question to evaluate the appropriateness of using hydro demolition.

Pavement

All projects with the item “Removal of Structure” or “Partial Removal of Structure” shall also have the item 529.10 – Removal Bridge Pavement, if pavement exists.

Vermont Agency of Transportation
One National Life Drive
Montpelier, VT 05633-5001
(802) 828-2657

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